The History of the Car Computer

The car is a very complicated thing in the modern world, with a whole host of mechanical and electronic systems working together to keep the car running, and to keep its levels of operation at maximum efficiency. The engine control unit is the centerpiece of a car’s electronics, which makes millions of processes each second to make slight adjustments to the actuators depending on the information the central CPU gets from the various number of real-time sensors. This goes alongside the transmission control unit, which ensures that gear changes within automatic cars are most efficient. These car computers not only keep the car running, but minimize the amount of fuel wasted, which keeps efficiency and economy high, whilst helping to protect the environment with minimal emissions.

The cars of today present a marked contrast between now and the early days of the automobile. From the turn of the century when the first commercial automobiles emerged, to the end of the 1960′s, there were obviously no electronic components, and vehicles were designed simply and included simple and robust mechanical control parts and basic methods of control. Back then a better car meant a car with a bigger engine, more speed and more horsepower, and little heed was paid to efficiency, economy, and the environment. However, the issue of the environment, and certainly the issue of economy became more and more pronounced in the 1970′s, with the inclusion of mandates, and the notable fuel crisis of the mid 70′s.

Around the same time, electronic technology was reaching the point where it was physically able to be included in automobiles, alongside the transmission from carburetors to fuel injection, but is wasn’t until the 1980′s that electronics became practical and economic enough to be included. Control over the ignition in the interests of minimizing fuel usage drove car electronics. The first pieces of circuitry used to control spark timings where large pieces of solid state circuitry, and would need replacement every few years. By the middle of the 80′s, the industry would be founded on fuel injection completely controlled by electronics.

Naturally, as commercial electronics boomed in the 80′s and on through the 90′s, becoming smaller, cheaper and more sophisticated, on-board car computers would take on more and more functional responsibilities, sensing more and more data and controlling more and more aspects of the car engine, among other things such as braking and climate control. Indeed it was not long before the computer became the central and integral component in the car.

With the rise of the computer came the potential for customization, with access to a programmable computer providing immense control other a vehicle’s power and other variables.

General Contractor – Offering More Than Just Construction Services

When we say general contractor, one of the first things that come to our mind is construction project, right. But did you know that there are a lot of services that you can get from a general contractor which is not that related to construction such as remodeling, repairs, and redesign. If you would like to learn more about the different services that you can get from them and the advantages that a contractor can offer you, then you need to read this article.

There are times when you only need a specific kind of service, but getting a general contractor is still a better option since you will not have to worry about looking for the best. Aside from this, a contractor can offer you better insurance plans, which can provide you with the best value for your money. For example, if you need to hire a roofing contractor, it would be better if you are going to look for a general contractor and let them look for the best roofing contractor to save more time. Aside from the insurance that you will be receiving from the roofing contractor, you will also be receiving insurance from the general contractor, which gives you better advantages.

Since the contractor is very familiar with the things that should be done on your house, you can be assured that they will do everything that is possible to find the best roofing contractor in the area. The general contractor liability insurance will hold them liable for all the damages, so they will make sure that you will get the best results from the roofing contractor that they will get for the project. We can say that this is similar to getting a third-party person who will take all the problems that you have, and will be heldiable if you are not satisfied with the results.

Aside from the remodeling and repairs, there are general contractors who can also offer cleaning services after the construction. Although this is not a very common service, there are still some who can help you clean your establishment once they made with the project. There are even some who will provide this service to you for free, depending on the scale of the project that you have. This will help you save even more, because you no longer need to look for other services that can provide it to you.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Photography

1. Lesser cost

One of the advantages that digital cameras provide is the fact that it is very practical and convenient. There is less cost in the long run as one need not buy film anymore and will need not develop the pictures the old fashion way. They would only need to charge the batteries, get a reasonably large memory stick and they are good to go.

2. Better storage

Photographers can now store the pictures that they have taken in their computers and in their cds, allowing them to use the memory stick over and over again. There is no more need to store rolls of film and worry that they might disintegrate.

3. Printing convenience

Another convenience that digital cameras provide is the fact that it can be printed at home the same way one would print any kind of file.

4. Trial and Error

Another convenience that digital cameras provide is the fact that one can actually view the photos right after taking it and have the option of erasing it when it is not good. This, according to experts, spoils photographers. Because they can do a take over and over again, they do not learn the discipline of planning for their shot before actually pressing the button.

Still, for the amateur photographer, this is like manna in heaven as this enables them to easily take good photographs and see their mistakes.

Disadvantages

1. Need for Computer literacy

Similar to film photography where you need to be also familiar with working in the dark room, one needs to have a modicum of computer skills. Not only will you be shooting your photographs in the computer, operating the camera is like operating a small computer. You really have to be computer literate in order to maximize the functions of your camera.

2. Artistry is lost

There are some that argument that artistry and spontaneity is lost when using a digital camera because photographers do not shoot using various effects. For instance, some would not bother to blur the background because because they can fix the photo in Photoshop and other graphic programs. One can do a number of things with the computer, erase flaws, fix red eyes and sharpen some features.

Family Conference Calls? Great for the Holidays & Family Reunions

Get the family together by starting a family conference call with a prepaid conference calling card.

Now more than ever we’re dispersed across the globe, busy with our careers, pursuing educational endeavors, and raising children. As much as we would like to stay in communication with our families, it is often difficult to get together at a time and place that everyone can accommodate. We do our best to call family members one at a time to touch-base, but it never quite feels the same as sharing with the entire family.

Luckily, over the past few years telecommunication products and services have advanced to the point where we can communicate with one another across vast distances at a very low cost with exceptional clarity. One such alternative, which can help your family get together, is conferencing.

Starting or joining a family conference call is easy and very inexpensive. There is no need to change long distance carriers. There is no complicated User’s Guide to read. And again…it’s incredibly cheap to start or join a family conference call.

How easy? It really is as easy as 1) Buy a conference call PIN, 2) Give family members your Access Code and a toll-free access number or toll access number, and 3) Start talking.

How cheap? Some conference call service providers offer free trials and very cheap per minute rates (compared to the Big Bells). Depending on which conference calls service provider you choose, starting or joining a conference call in the USA can cost under 5¢/min. If a family member is outside of the USA, he/she can still join at a relatively cheap rate per minute using an international toll-free access number or a local toll access number if necessary. Even the most conservative long distance budget can now include room for a family conference call.

Take charge this holiday season and get the family together by hosting a family conference call, or virtual family reunion.